Welcome to Pakistanwap! Man is taking many benefits from science. There is no doubt that modern man has made a lot of progress and science has made life easier. And perhaps in modern times, even ordinary human beings have access to facilities due to modern science that even a king could not have imagined a few centuries ago.
How did Chernobyl’s worst nuclear accident happen? | چرنوبل کا بدترین ایٹمی حادثہ کیسے ہوا؟ | Chernobyl power plant Disaster |چرنوبل بدترین ایٹمی حادثہ
But friends, the risks involved in using science are as great as the benefits . In modern times, nuclear energy is undoubtedly the most important means of generating very cheap electricity, but these nuclear power plants can sometimes cause terrible and irreparable damage Our this Article is about one such nuclear accident that occurred in 1986 at Chernobyl – a nuclear power station near the city of Pripyat, very close to the Belarusian border in the north of the Soviet country of Ukraine.
This largest nuclear accident in human history, emitted four hundred times more radiation than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima How did it happen? How much damage was caused, what was the cause, how did the whole of Europe come to the brink of disaster, how long will the effects last and what is happening today at the site of this accident? Let’s know it all. Events before the incident At the time of the accident, a total of four nuclear reactors were in operation while two reactors were under construction An experiment was to be done on 25 April,
1986 in reactor 4 of Chernobyl Power Plant The purpose of this experiment was to continue the process of cooling the reactor with the help of turbine generators in the case of a power outage. There have been three such failed experiments before and now this was the fourth time. According to the plan, the initial phase of the experiment started at 1:06 AM on April 25 but the experiment had to be stopped due to sudden shutdown of another power station in the area at around 2 AM to meet the shortage of supply.
As the situation improved, the experiment was resumed, but at 12:05 AM on April 26, the temperature suddenly began to rise and steam began to form. Somehow the process of steaming was stopped. Thus these various sudden changes made the overall reaction unstable. The explosion caused by the incident At 1:23 a.m., the most important phase of the experiment began when the turbine generators were activated. But the momentum of the turbine generators suddenly decreased so much that it could not run the water pumps and the flow of water was affected As a result,
the temperature of the reactor increased and steam started to form in large quantities again At that time, the whole city was sleeping peacefully in their homes. Suddenly the ground of the nuclear plant starts shaking and a few seconds later there is a loud explosion, the roof of reactor 4 weighing twelve hundred tons is blown away and a fire breaks out. Panic spreads among the people and no one understands what has happened. Uranium and graphite vapors begin to spread in the air,
which is impossible to control. It is said that this fire, full of radiation and rays, reached more than three thousand feet in the sky The most devastating nuclear accident in history had taken place. And right now the world was unaware of it. Firefighters, present on the spot try to put out the fire to deal with the emergency All of these people are putting out fires without any safety precautions and endangering their lives inside the radio-active zone Remember that radioactive radiation and substances are very dangerous for humans and for every living thing.
It releases alpha and beta particles that affect humans in different ways. It also directly affects the skin of human beings and can also enter the body through inhalation and causes various diseases It causes skin burns and radiation sickness and destroys cells completely. Post-accident events and dangers Two people were dead shortly after the blast By morning, radioactive particles begin to accumulate in the form of clouds. About five hundred feet below the bottom of the destroyed reactor,
graphite is still burning the heat of which is causing the melt of twelve hundred tons of uranium and other hazardous radioactive substances and emitting hazardous particles and rays By April 28, clouds of radio-active particles have reached Sweden, about a thousand KM away Radiation measuring devices near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Sweden suddenly reach dangerous levels of radiation Forsmark staff are at first horrified that the radiation is being emitted from their plant but after a while they realize that these radiations,
particles and rays are emitting from somewhere else Thus, Sweden alerts the officials of the Soviet Union who were still either really unaware of the horror of the incident or were deliberately hiding it from the world. The detection of radiations in Sweden clearly meant that the whole of Europe was at risk from these radioactive particles. After Sweden’s alert, sacks of sand and boric acid are dropped by helicopter into the fire below. Sand and boric acid are capable to eliminate the effects of radiations
Danger of another explosion from molten material The direct emission of fire and radiation from the reactor was stopped by adding sand and boric acid, but the temperature was constantly rising due to the melting of uranium and other radioactive substances under this pile, due to which, cracks were appearing on the ground of the reactor. At the beginning of the explosion, some of the water was used to put out the fire, it had gathered below the ground level, and if the molten substance goes in it,
the water would have become so hot that it could have caused another explosion. It could have been even more horrific than the first blast and it could wipe out the 225 km area around Chernobyl and its effects would have reached Europe and Europe would have had to be evacuated It was immediately decided to use lead to reduce the temperature. So the helicopter dropped lead on the site, which lowered the temperature somewhat. A few days later, despite all the dangers, the water under the reactor was removed using an underground passage,
but there was also a larger reservoir of groundwater below this level. So a permanent solution was needed. It was decided that an underground tunnel should be made to reach the reactor and a cooling device should be placed in the ground beneath the molten uranium and other substances so it could stop the melting process Miners from the area around Chernobyl came to Chernobyl and the tunnel was built within fifteen days Shortly after the work was completed, many of them died and the rest suffered from radiation sickness for the rest of their lives.
After the tunnel was made, instead of placing a cooling device on the empty space under the molten material, it was filled with cement so that the molten material would stop sinking down further. Efforts to eliminate the effects of radiations It was then decided that the wreckage of the reactor should be removed and demolished so that the whole zone could be radiation free but this work required thousands of people Soviet officials have so far kept the Chernobyl incident a secret from the world, and official had said nothing about it.
Finally, the leader of the Soviet Union spoke on television and told the world about the Chernobyl accident and the threat it posed. After the speech, thousands of people from every country of the Soviet Union were sent to Chernobyl. They included people from all walks of life. They were named “Liquidators” and the whole mission was called “Liquidation of Chernobyl”. The helicopter dropped a special substance on the reactor and surrounding areas that was capable of counteracting the effects of radioactive rays and substances
Most buildings and the things were bulldozed to the ground and covered with a layer of cement to eliminate the effects of radiations. The men in the mission were wearing full protective clothing. To completely isolate reactor number four, an engineer came up with the idea of a very large covering to cover the reactor so that no more radio-active radiations could be emitted into the air. It was to be made of steel and concrete, with 550 feet width and 215 feet length. This whole structure had to be built in the same area
because it was impossible to transfer such a large structure from anywhere This work could not be done by machines, so despite the dangers of radiation, humans had to go to this area on their own. Twelve weeks had passed. Eventually the process of making this cover began and the pieces began to be attached around the reactor one-by-one The work was going on with success but another problem arose. During the explosion, thousands of pieces of graphite had fallen on the broken roof of the reactor,
emitting so much radiation that one could die in just half an hour. Robots were now used to throw pieces of graphite down and the other robots would embed it into the ground but a few days later the radiation caused a technical glitch in the robots and the robots became inoperable. They were replaced by Russian soldiers, later called bio-robots. The soldiers were completely covered by protective uniforms, masks, boots, and goggles. All this safety equipment weighed about 30 kg A total of 3,500 people took part in this task.
It took ten days to complete the work seven months after the blast, the entire area was cleared and the reactor was covered. However, radioactivity in the area could not be completely removed Deaths and effects on humans It is not possible to say with certainty how many people were died and how many were affected by the incident. Sometimes, death toll is said to be less than a hundred and sometimes in the thousands. Death toll from the accident is also estimated to be between 4,000 and 93,000.
Even years after the incident, participants of the Liquidation of Chernobyl and tunneling continued to need to go to the hospital. The problems they faced are named as Chernobyl Syndrome. These people suffered from various heart, kidney and lung problems due to radiation. Many of them still suffer from these problems and some have died Radioactivity is still found in the area around Chernobyl, and children born here usually have a variety of diseases and problems. Today’s Chernobyl Even after this accident,
nuclear research and experiments continued in the remaining three reactors of Chernobyl for fourteen years. Finally, after global pressure and criticism work in the remaining three reactors of Chernobyl was stopped in 2001. Construction of the two reactors under construction had already been halted – there are still dangerous radiations inside the cover of the reactor 4 around the plant. Construction of the new cover began in 2010 and was completed in 2019. It costed 2.3 billion dollars to build.
The affected cities of Pripyat and Chernobyl are still deserted and uninhabitable due to radioactivity. However, a few people have relocated to their homes by choice. To pay tribute to Liquidators and everyone else who played a role in mitigating the effects of the accident, “Monument to those Who Saved the World” has been built. Tourists are only allowed to stay in the area for a short time. There is still radioactive material inside the reactor,
this material is named as The Elephant Foot Its temperature is close to 2500 degrees Celsius. According to scientists, the effects of radiation in this material will last for one lac years. And it will take 3,000 years for the area around Chernobyl to become habitable. A few months after the accident, the International Atomic Energy Agency investigated the incident and prepared a report. In 1992, some changes were made to the report. The report blamed the operators for the accident. The Soviet Union received strong criticism from the United States and Europe.
The United States and European newspapers issued various reports about it. The Soviet Union kept the countries bordering Ukraine unaware of the accident and its dangers for several days, which put the lives of the people of those countries in danger. In 2019, HBO made a mini-TV series on Chernobyl that became very popular. Friends, this was not the first nuclear accident in history. In fact, there have been several nuclear accidents in the United States,
Germany and Switzerland before Similar incidents occurred in many countries after the Chernobyl incident, but most were much less severe than in Chernobyl These incidents include the Fukushima, Japan, which reported up to seven. Despite this horrific event in history and its continued threat, developed countries are increasingly working on nuclear energy Nuclear energy has become a necessary evil. Even today, however, the deserted and quiet area of Chernobyl tells a grim story and warns us. How did you like this Article? Tell us in comments. Thanks!