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Jamaluddin Naqvi, the central figure of the communist movement

Jamaluddin Naqvi, the central figure of the communist movement
Jamaluddin Naqvi

Jamaluddin Naqvi, the central figure of the communist movement

Professor Jamaluddin Naqvi, the main character and teacher of the communist movement in Pakistan, has passed away at the age of 85.

Jamaluddin Naqvi had been ill for many years.

Professor Jamal Naqvi not only engaged in left-wing politics but also attracted a large number of youth in this way. He was considered one of the hardline leaders of the Communist Party.

Jamaluddin Naqvi was born in 1932 in Allahabad, India. His father, Syed Nihaluddin, was a lecturer at Allahabad University. Professor Jamal Naqvi joined left-wing politics after World War II because of his cousin Shafiq Naqvi, an official of the Communist Party of India in Uttar Pradesh.

The Communist Party of India supported the establishment of Pakistan and in 1948 the Communist Party of Pakistan was founded in Calcutta. Professor Jamal Naqvi came to Pakistan in 1949, where he enrolled at Islamia College in Karachi, where he joined the Democratic Students Federation, a subsidiary of the Communist Party.

Former political activist and professor Dr. Tauseef Ahmed says that in those days educational institutions were suffering from many problems, the university was not functioning, the college was low and the fees were high while the transport facility was non-existent. YF launched the first student movement in Pakistan on January 8, 1953.

“In those days, when Khawaja Nazimuddin was the prime minister, he crushed the movement with force, killing 12 people, including eight students,” he said. Several student leaders, including Professor Jamal Naqvi, were arrested, and finally Khawaja Nazimuddin struck a deal with the students, which resulted in the abolition of fees, the creation of new educational institutions, and the concession for students in transport. The students were led by Dr. Adib Al Hassan Rizvi, Dr. Haroon Ahmed, Dr. Sarwar and Prof. Jamal Naqvi.


When the Communist Party cracked down in the 1960s, Professor Jamal Naqvi went underground. After Prof. Tauseef Ahmed, Prof. Jamal Naqvi was the coordinator of the Communist Party of West Pakistan and East Pakistan. Under Yahya Khan, there was a massacre in Bangladesh and the Communist Party protested, he had to go underground once again and he was given refuge in his village by the famous Baloch leader Mir Ghous Bakhsh Bizenjo.

When the Communist Party of Pakistan split ideologically in support of China and Moscow in 1966, Professor Jamal, along with Nazish Amrohi, continued to support Moscow.

Journalist and analyst Mazhar Abbas says that when the 1973 constitution was being drafted, Prof. Jamal Naqvi and the Communist Party were part of the National Awami Party. Professor Jamal Naqvi played a key role when the NEP boycotted the drafting of the constitution. Later, Mir Ghous Bakhsh Bizenjo also admitted it and said that Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto had told him that if the NEP did not boycott. The form of the 1973 constitution would have been completely different.

During the rule of General Zia-ul-Haq, Prof. Jamal Naqvi was arrested in 1980. He was the Acting Secretary General of the Communist Party of Pakistan at that time. Shabbir Shar and Nazir Abbasi were present. Nazir Abbasi was killed during the violence.
The case pending in a military court is known as the Jam Saqi case. According to analyst Mazhar Abbas, this is the only case in Pakistan’s history in which top politicians of the time defended communist leaders, including Benazir. Bhutto was among those who appeared in the case for the first time since his arrest.

When the PIA plane was hijacked in 1981, the hijackers demanded the release of a number of political activists, including the seven communist leaders, including Jamal Naqvi, but they refused to leave, saying they wanted to leave the country. They want to do politics inside and are against the politics of violence.

Professor Jamal Naqvi withdrew from politics after his release. A few years ago, he wrote a book called “Living the Leaf Behind” in which he rejected his political ideology.

Analyst Mazhar Abbas says it is rare for a politician to publicly admit that what he did was wrong. His confession was widely criticized, but no one can ignore his struggle.

Read more: Martyr’ of Spina Tangi Qazi Fazal Qadir: Leaders of Bannu whose graves were also imprisoned by the British government

Have you ever heard of a person being sentenced to death and having his grave built inside a prison for execution?

Yes, a similar incident took place 90 years ago today in the Spina Tangi area of ​​Bannu District in the then NWFP during the British rule.

On 24 August 1930, British troops opened fire on a protest, killing 80 people, injuring hundreds and arresting scores of people.

How did the incident happen?

During the British rule, there were three major incidents of violence in 1930, which occurred a few months apart. One of them took place in Qissa Khawani, a historic bazaar in Peshawar, while several people were killed in a similar incident in the Tucker area of ​​Mardan District. In addition, there is the above-mentioned incident in Bannu, the details of which will be described below.
Dr. Asfandyar Durrani, Professor of History at the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, has researched resistance movements in the British era.

He told the BBC that the Spina Tangi incident was part of a series of movements against the British rule that began after 1929 in various parts of the North West Frontier Province.
He said that after the Qissa Khawani incident, there was resistance from the Khudai Khidmatgar movement and their support included the Frontier Congress Committee in Peshawar, Frontier Khilafah Committee and the youth wing of the NWFP.

On that day, a large number of people were present in the assembly hall at Spina Tangi near Bannu.

This series of demonstrations was going on in different parts of the province and people were protesting under the banner of Khudai Khidmatgar movement.

A demonstration was held in Kirk before Spina Tangi and then a demonstration was announced on August 24 in Spina Tangi.

The demonstrations were banned by the British government. The protest was led by local leader Qazi Fazal Qadir.

Abdul Nasser Khan, from Bannu district, said that meetings had been held at other places in the area before Spina Tangi and they were all peaceful. He said that people were safe even in Spina Tangi and arms were taken from them by the local administration.
Qazi Fazal Qadir was a well-known personality of the area and his followers were not only in Bannu but also in nearby areas.

During the demonstration, the British Captain Ashraf reached there and on the stage he started talking to Qazi Fazal Qadir, which led to bitter words between the two and Captain Ashraf fired at them.

Ahmed Khan Chandan, a young man, is said to have been there and had a sickle, with which he attacked the British captain, after which the government indiscriminately opened fire, resulting in a large number of casualties. ۔

After that, the people there became incensed but the people did not have any weapons so the government was not harmed at that time.

Qazi Fazal Qadir was dragged away in a critical condition and died at Domail police station. But the British officials were so angry that their bodies were not handed over to their heirs but were buried inside the jail.

He was later tried and sentenced to life in prison. It was a rare case of someone being sentenced to imprisonment after death.
Abdul Nasser Khan said his grave was built inside the jail to carry out the sentence.

One report is that the tomb was built inside a mill mill and chained around it to show that he was a prisoner.

But this is not an isolated incident during the British rule. According to Professor Asfandyar, the chaining of a tree in Khyber and the chaining of a door in Mohmand also took place during the British rule.

Various statements have been made regarding the deaths in the incident, one of which is said to have killed 70 to 80 people and injured more than 50, while some reports put the death toll at around 200.

The Central Jail is located inside the city of Bannu and its building was very old, after which a new building of Bannu Jail was constructed in 2004 under former Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Chief Minister Akram Khan Durrani, who belonged to Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam.

The old jail has been demolished and Qazi Fazal Qadir Park has been built there and his grave has been paved with marble, but the chains around the grave still exist.

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