Sher Shah Suri: The Afghan chief who ruled India
It is about the year 1528, about 500 years before today, in the capital of India, Agra. The Mughal emperor Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babar returned to Agra after the conquest of Chandiri and Babar’s rule over India was established.
The royal banquet continues with the victories. At the invitation of the princes and chiefs, various kinds of food are served. One day at a similar feast, chicken, fish, deer meat, kebabs, palao, bread as well as fish in different khabas were also placed on the table.
King Babar is also there with his amirs and ministers. His eyes fall on an Afghan chief who does not know how to eat mahiche but is taking out a dagger in his own way and slicing it and eating it comfortably.
King Babar’s heart is troubled by the contentment of his face and the way he eats, and he tells his prime minister, Mir Khalifa, the brother of Afghan Prime Minister Shah Junaid, that It is known that this will cause disturbance, ‘He should be arrested immediately.’
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The caliph advised the king that it would be expedient to arrest him and the Pathan chiefs would get the impression that the king was against the Pathans.
The arrest warrant was revoked, but Babar was not satisfied. There are. ‘
“I have seen so many Afghan warriors but no one has impressed me as much as this man has. Signs of its glory can be dangerous for us.
On the other hand, this Afghan chief saw the king looking at him with malice and talking to his minister. Due to the distance he could not hear the words but Jahandida Sardar understood that it was about him and the intention of the king was not right.
So after finishing his meal he left and then he left Agra without telling anyone. This chief was none other than Sher Shah Suri, the Pathan who forced the Mughals to chew the cud and expelled them from India.
Speaking about Sher Shah Suri, Moin Ahmad Nizami, a professor of South Asian Islam at the Oxford Center for Islamic Studies, said that Babar’s fears began to rise after his death and ten years later he came true as a prophecy. When Sher Shah Suri expelled Babar’s successor and Mughal ruler Humayun from India.
Sher Shah Suri ruled northern India completely for only five years (17 May 1540 to 22 May 1545) but he left an indelible mark on history.
In which his beautiful arrangement is a shining beacon from which the kings who came after him, especially the Mughal emperor Akbar, got guidance and nurtured his style of patriotism.
The rupee they run is in circulation today not only in India and Pakistan but also in many other countries. The rupee was already in use but its amount was not fixed.
Early living conditions
Historians do not agree on the birth of Sher Shah but the public opinion is that he was born in 1486 in Hisar, the present day Indian state of Haryana. Thus he was about three years younger than King Babar but in many places he was his age.
Sher Shah’s real name was Farid Khan and he was Hassan Khan’s first son. Hassan Khan’s father Ibrahim Khan came to India during the reign of Sultan Bahlol Lodhi and acquired another manor.
Farid Khan’s father, Hassan Khan, took up employment with the chief minister of Kalkapur and the approval of Sultan Bahlol, Wazir Umar Khan Sarwani, who granted several villages in the pargana Shahabad as jagir to Hassan Khan. During the reign of Sikandar Lodhi,
when Jamal Khan’s Iqbal rose, he appointed Hassan Khan as an officer of 500 cavalry besides the estate of his father Ibrahim Khan and owned the estates of Sahasram, Hajipur and Tanda near Banaras. Grant
Hassan Khan fell in love with his son Farid Khan for the happiness of his beloved Nazar wife, which Farid Khan realized and he rode to Jaunpur Jamal Khan, where he spent his youth in education and Thanks to this he founded a great empire.
Kalka Ranjan Qanun Go, an important historian who traced the era of Sher Shah Suri, wrote that Sher Shah’s scholarly passion and multi-reading characteristic characterized his study of literature as a child.
By walking on which illiterate brave people like Shivaji, Haider Ali and Ranjit Singh get the happiness of becoming emperors by rising above the ordinary level. We do not find any other person in the history of India who, in his early life, founded a government while being a non-military.
Farid Khan’s early circumstances and the behavior of his stepmother had led him to reflect and ponder. Many historians say that if they had not had a stepmother in their lives, they would not have been so determined and would not have the resilience in their nature to guarantee their development.
Employed in the Mughal army
It is said that the moods of kings change on the tongues of villains.
So after the proclamation of the reign of Bihar Khan, Babar set out to suppress the East, so Humayun offered his name for the expedition and Babar allowed Humayun and Humayun suppressed the rebellious Pathans Khan lost his confidence and handed over his estate to his half-brothers and reached Junepur after assuring peace to Junaid Barlas, the governor of the Mughal government.
After the battle of Khanwa (Kanwa) on March 16, 1527, Sher Khan along with Junaid Barlas reached Babar’s court where he served in the Mughal army for about a year and a half. Meanwhile, at the request of Junaid and the Prime Minister, King Babar granted Sher Khan his estate in Sahasram.
But that move of Sher Khan on Babar’s table caused concern in Babar’s heart but here it is necessary to explain the eating of fish which can upset anyone so why not a person like King Babar would be worried.
Professor Soban Saeed at Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti University in Lucknow, quoting Persian dictionaries, said there was disagreement about Mahicha. In one place it is called a fern made of soybeans and milk, while in another it is called a dish made by putting meat or fish in flour. Both are eaten with a spoon, not with a dagger or a dagger.
He said that Khan’s anger has been mentioned in many places, sometimes jokingly and sometimes really. He was very quick and he was very warm but some historians call him understanding and settled.
The bragging or the pulse of Mughal weakness?
Abbas Khan Sarwani, a courtier appointed to record the history of Afghans at the court of King Akbar, was related to Sher Shah. He wrote that he was enthusiastic from the beginning and wanted to get government from the Mughals while other Afghans considered him arrogant and boastful.
They call Sher Shah Alexander II. He writes that in the campaign of Chanderi, Alexander II (Sher Shah) was with the army of King Zal Subhani Babar. Sheikh Ibrahim Sarwani came to me and said let’s go to Sher Khan Soor and he talks more than his rank so much that people laugh.
“We rode to his camp. In his speech, Sheikh Ibrahim said that it is difficult for the country of India to fall into the hands of Pathans again and for the Mughals to leave India. Sher Khan said to Sheikh Muhammad, be a witness of what happens between me and Sheikh Ibrahim.
If my fortune favors me, I will drive the Mughals out of India in a few days. ‘
Because the Mughals are no more than Pathans in the sword fight. Due to mutual opposition, the Pathans gave up the country of India. Ever since I came to the Mughals and found out about their battles, I have found that their feet do not stand in battle and the king, due to their high kinship and high status, does not pay attention to his own affairs in the country and his affairs. Gives princes and members wealth.
And he trusts in their words and deeds, and his subjects and soldiers and landlords who are haraam eaters are caught in the act of bribery. Does everyone get their work done with the help of money … You do not differentiate between friend and foe because of the lure of money. If Iqbal helped, then Sheikh Ji will see or hear that I should control the Pathans in such a way that I do not allow them to be divided.
And Sher Khan’s words proved to be true word for word. Earlier, when he was first given charge of his pargana, he had restrained the landlords and patwaris for the sake of Dutok Riya.
On the other hand, after the death of King Babar, Sher Khan began to unite the Pathans and increase his power. His first major battle is said to have been against the Sultan of Bengal, in which Sher Shah demonstrated a unique war strategy. Sher Shah’s occupation of Bengal woke up Humayun from his dream of being the king of India instead of Babar.
Chinar’s victory and successive marriages
Sher Khan’s second major victory was the fort of Chinar which Babar had earlier conquered but he could not control it and Taj Khan obeyed Babar and maintained his power over this fort.
Taj Khan gave his heart to a fairy beauty queen and married her but they did not have any children while the queen already had three sons who were even more disgusted with the lad queen than his father that he gave birth to his father. Was made a puppet.
So a son attacked to get rid of Lad Ladka. When Taj Khan found out, he came out with a sword. According to Abbas Khan Sarwani, he said, “You have attacked Lad, now taste my sword.” The son thought that he was about to die, so he ran away with a sword wound, but Taj Khan could not survive.
After that, chaos broke out in Chinar fort. Sher Khan had his eye on this fort because it was one of the few forts in the country at that time and the conquests of the East were on his way.
Now the Lad Queen was in charge of the fort yesterday and the three chiefs had obeyed him till his death, but Sher Khan persuaded them that when the news of Taj Khan’s death reached the king, he should dismiss the Lad Queen. And their lives will not be safe.
Vidya Bhaskar writes that ‘Sher Khan’s words were understood by these chiefs and they made an agreement with Sher Khan and told the Lord Queen that the only way to escape from the king was to hand over the fort to Sher Khan. He also suggested marriage. He this
Sher Khan has a network of spies
Sher Khan was very fond of reading and in his nature was embedded in meeting people and keeping abreast of the world, so we see that when other chiefs were busy in luxury, Sher Khan from different courts about the situation. Prefer to be aware.
So when the Afghan chiefs plotted to assassinate Sher Shah, they exposed it, saying that a conspiracy was being hatched against them at the Jaunpur court. Since the Subedar was also involved, he continued to feel embarrassed. Similarly, when Humayun laid siege to Chinar, Sher Shah found out what was going on in other places and he realized that Humayun would not stay there for long. So that’s what happened.
He also knew where and how much wealth he had, so he took many parganas under his supervision only so that he could dispose of his wealth.
When Sher Shah was with Babar, he used to spend time in performing duties and meeting people and building closeness with them. However, he succeeded in creating unity among the Afghans through his acquaintance and friendship and when he defeated Humayun in the battle of Chosa on June 26, 1539, he took the title of Fariduddin Sher Shah and claimed his name. دھلوائے۔
The following year, in 1540, at the Battle of Qanooj, Humayun was so defeated that Humayun was forced to leave India.
Historian Moin Ahmad Nizami told the BBC that between 1539-40, Sher Khan inflicted a series of defeats on Humayun. He was so opportunistic in his actions that it was too late for Humayun to regain consciousness.
Earlier, in 1537, Humayun left Agra without assessing his ability. His first military mistake was that instead of crushing Sher Khan in Bengal, he stopped for a siege of Chinar near Banaras and instead of occupying Bengal completely, he wasted time on its border.
This has also been mentioned by other historians. Abbas Khan Sarwani, the first narrator of Sher Shah, wrote that Sher Khan left his son in the fort on orders and encamped on a nearby hill from where he cut off all sources of support and his Almost paralyzed the army.
Moin Ahmed says Humayun was a slower fighter than Sher Khan and he was unable to assess the dangers posed by Sher Shah until Sher Shah cut off not only Humayun’s supply but also his correspondence. Given
Moin Ahmed says that the defeat of Humayun was not due to his incompetence or low morale of the army as the historian Mirza Haider said but it was the victory of Sher Shah’s flexible war strategy over the tough war strategy of the Mughals. ‘
After defeating Humayun, Sher Shah pursued Humayun with his army until he left India. Sher Shah then tried to consolidate his rule like any other king and confronted the Rajputs until he became the king of the whole of northern India.
More than Sher Shah’s war campaigns, his managerial skills are appreciated. Although before him Allauddin Khilji, Muhammad bin Tughlaq and Feroz Shah had paid some attention to this, but Sher Shah left a very lasting impression in a very short time.
According to Vidya Bhaskar, the British historian Kane, in particular, praised Sher Shah’s administration of the empire: Given He devoted every moment of his life to better governance and better military organization. He did not believe in royal splendor and lived far away from luxurious parties.
It is said that once Humayun’s ambassador returned with Sher Shah, he told him that Sher Shah was digging a pit in the hot sun. When they saw me, they sat down on the ground and talked to me. ‘
It should be noted that Sher Shah established his government from Assam to Multan and Sindh and from Kashmir to the hills of Sadpara and introduced a uniform system of government. Divided the whole empire into governments and parganas which are today commissioners and districts.
From the outset, Sher Shah attributed the decline of the government to a lack of justice, and whenever he got the upper hand, he tried to establish a system of justice and established courts in every city.
He built a highway from Bengal to Afghanistan known as the Grand Trunk Road (GT Road). Not only this, they built a road from Agra to Burhanpur in the south and another from Agra to Jodhpur and Chittor and a third from Lahore to Multan and built about 1700 caravanserais on these roads where separate arrangements were made for accommodation and food for Hindus and Muslims. Were
There were hot and cold water arrangements. The inn also provided food and drink for the horses, and passengers received free food from the government. A mosque was built in the inn and an imam and muezzin were appointed in it. There was a guard to protect the passengers’ belongings and they all had a manager on them.
Sher Shah also planted trees along the road so that travelers could rest under its shade in summer. The revenue of many nearby villages was devoted to the arrangement of the inn.
Arrangements were made to protect the highways and Amil or Shaqdar was ordered to report theft or trespassing anywhere in their area and to find the culprits.
Sher Shah not only strengthened the fort of Sahasram, he also built the fort of Rohtas which is now in Jhelum district of Punjab province of Pakistan while Rohtas is also a place in Bihar where Sher Shah built. Apart from this, many buildings of the old fort of Delhi are also his memorial.
Sher Shah was in his 60s when he laid siege to Kalingar Fort in Bundelkhand against the Rajputs of Mahoba. Abbas Sarwani states that he was killed on Friday, May 22, 1545, by an ammunition shell that hit the fort wall because there were many shells where he was standing, including Sher Shah and many others. Others were killed, but one of their children survived the blast.
It is said that Sher Shah laid siege to the fort of Kalingar and built a fort in front of the fort so high that he could hunt whatever was seen inside the fort.
But the reason for the delay in taking the fort was a slave girl dancing in the harem of Raja Kirat Singh, whose praise Sher Khan had heard a lot and he had in his heart the intention to somehow get that slave girl. (They will think) If I take the fort by force, then Raja Kirat Singh will take the essence again and burn this slave girl. ‘
In his note, Mazhar Ali Khan Villa, the Urdu translator of the history of Sher Shahi, wrote: For the sake of a dancing girl, he extended the siege and eventually lost his life.
Sher Shah’s shrine is in Sahasram, built by his son Saleem Shah on the shores of an artificial lake, which is still a tourist attraction.
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