Friends , Welcome to Pakistanwap. If you look at south part of earth from space , You will see white part . Or if you will study a globe sized of football placed on earth , Then you will see a stain sized of tennis ball on its south pole This white part is actually is world’s third largest continent or world largest ice desert “Antarctica”. When and how this part of Earth came into being ? Is this continent under control of America or any other country ? What is its geopolitical or geographical importance ?
The History of Antarctica In Urdu And English | what is the History of Antarctica ? | What is the facts and climate of Antarctica? | انٹارکٹکا کی ہسٹری | انٹارکٹکا کی کیا ہسٹری ہے؟
Has this area been such an icy desert or will it melts in coming years or it will remain same ? Let us know all this in this video . This part of Earth has not always been like this . Million of years ago today , this part of earth consist of super continent “Gondwana ” that also contained nowadays continent Africa , Subcontinent and south America . 250 million years ago today , this part of earth got separated like other parts of Gondwana . And present continent Antarctica came into being .
This continent surrounded by continent Australia , South America , Africa , Indian ocean and Pacific ocean consist of 14 million square km. 98% of its part is covered by ice .The thickness of this ice layer is approx 2km. Temperature of this place remains -50 degree centigrade . In 1983, the lowest temperature recorded was -89 degree centigrade . Average annual rainfall here is 10cm. Earth’s total 90% ice and 70% of clean water founds here. Which country controls Antarctica ? Due to hard weather and its remote location , this region was far from human reach for centuries .
But in start of nineteenth century , different countries started claiming over different parts of Antarctica. It’s discovery and constant presence in the region were some of the arguments on the basis of which different countries considered themselves entitled to it . In 1909 , the United kingdom first claimed ownership of the Antarctic territories . Number of countries claimed ownership of Antarctica became seven until mid of 20th century. That included Argentina , Australia , Chile , France , Newzeland , Norway and England .
During World War 2 ,many countries were expediting in Antarctica, including United Nations and Germany. In December 1938 , germany sent a mission towards Antarctica . The aim was to find a place where Germans other than claiming ownership also built a station for whale oil . An that time, whale oil was very important raw material . After some time German went back from Antarctica . The United States has had its eye on Antarctica since mid of nineteenth century . US mission have been coming here since then . After the allied victory in World War 2 , the struggle for control of the continent intensified .
After this defeat Germany was out of this race and England has lost its super power. In 1988, to solve these disputes , scientist from twelve different countries have gone for research to this continent . They not only highlighted the importance of Antarctica for Earth but also emphasized on joint governance. Next year , in December 1959 , these twelve countries met in Washington and signed an agreement known as Antarctic treaty. The agreement was aimed at allocating Antarctica for scientific research and establishing peace , as well as banning all forms of military actions.
Every country was allowed to set up scientific research here . And all property claims made by different countries has annulled. So friends , the answer of our question who is owner of Antarctica is that no country owns it alone . But those twelve countries that signed Antarctic treaty has increased upto 54. They all have mutual control over this area. These countries have further divided into Consultative and non consultative groups. Consultative parties have to right to make decisions and do research while non consultative parties do not have such rights. Pakistan and Antarctica .
Pakistan was the first Islamic country who sent its mission to Antarctica. In 1951 to 1993 , Pakistan has built two scientific stations Jinnah Antarctic Station 1 and 2 and Iqbal observatory station in this region. On 15 June 1992 , Pakistan became associate member of Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. But Pakistan is not complete member of this committee till now. Our neighbor country Bharat is full member of this committee since 1984 and its research program is very advance . Recently, Pakistan with China has started sending his scientists towards Antarctica .
Institute of ministry and technology department “National institute of oceanography ” Is responsible for Pakistan
s research program related to Antarctica . Pakistan is also willing to make its permanent base in Antarctica. That will help Scientists staying and doing research there. What is population of Antarctica ? This continent has no permanent population . but people living here are scientists from different countries.
And there number is 5000 in summers and in winters they number decrease to 1000. Other than this Antarctica has no time zone. People staying there estimate time according to their countries. Antarctica and Penguins . Despite of dry and severe weather , this region not only contains natural resources But it is also shelter for sixty different types of birds including penguins and sea whales .
This region of Antarctica also contain more than for hundred sub glacial Eagles. Whenever someone discuss Antarctica , penguins come to mind first . like penguins and Antarctica are correlative. Out of seventeen different kinds of penguins in world eight kinds live in Antarctica . Penguins are birds but they dont fly . The most prominent of the penguins found in Antarctica are emperor penguins .
Female emperor penguins lay only one egg that she gives to male penguin for incubation and starts finding food. Male penguin sits on egg for 35 days without eating anything and looses 45 kg weight . After returning of female penguin , male penguin goes out for food. Has Antarctica ever been full of life ? There are no trees in Antarctica . but they have two different kinds of flowering plants. During research , scientists have found fossils of trees from one part of Alexander Island.
From the research of these fossils , it has come to light that there were trees of length 7m . In 2011 , scientist discovered an egg sized of football in Antarctica. It was speculated that it is egg of mosasurus. After research on fossils of this egg , it becomes clear that it is largest ever discovered egg. Scientists have compared characteristics of this egg with 259 eggs of different reptiles.
And they came to the point that it is egg of such animal whose length is 23 ft or 7 m. The result was that this egg is of musasaurus . That were populated over this region 66 years ago today . The weight of musasaurus was 14000 kg. Fossils of trees and egg of musasaurus are evidences that Antarctica has not always been this way. Even there was life millions of years ago .
Due to increasing global warming , ice in Antarctica is melting 0.2 inch. According to experts , if we will not control global warming , sea level can rise dangerously . If all ice in Antarctica melts , sea level can raise upto 230 feet . May be all ice of Antarctica melts in future or life will again start here . So , friends give your feedback in comments. Thanks !