The Ottoman Empire Season 2 Episode 3 Urdu | Battle of Lepanto & Napoleon Bonaparte | اور عثمانی سپر پاور نہ رہے
The rising sun of the Ottoman Empire, where Solomon the Great died, also set. Even after this empire lasted for three hundred and fifty years, but now it did not have the power that it had gained in its first two and a half hundred years. Just five years after the death of Caliph Suleiman, the Turks suffered a crushing defeat in a naval battle that stripped them of their superpower status. Ottoman caliphs confined to their harem and palace conspiracies began to gain momentum. Rebellions became commonplace among the generals and other armies, and the looting in Istanbul,
the capital of the Ottoman Empire, came as no surprise. Then came the time when Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France, invaded the Ottoman Empire. Turkey was a superpower of the 15th and 16th centuries AD. Why is it called the sick man of Europe?we will show you all this in the Ottoman Empire series. After the death of Caliph Suleiman, his son Saleem II became the ruler but he did not have the ability to run the government. So he handed over all his powers to his prime minister and spent more time in the harem with his wives and concubines.
As a result, the grip of the Turkish caliph on matters began to weaken. The institutions of the empire also began to weaken. But the Ottoman army had not yet weakened. The Turkish navy was still very strong. In 1570, the fleet snatched the island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean under Turkey from the European country of Venice. Venice sought the help of the pope, and at the pope’s request, Spain and Geneva formed a joint navy called the Holy League. We have shown you in the previous episode that the Turkish navy, led by Khairuddin Barbarossa, defeated the previous Holy League.
But now, in fifteen hundred and seventy-one, time had taken a big turn. There was no naval commander who could make up for the lack of Khairuddin Barbarossa, and this was well known to the European powers. So the European Holy League began to move rapidly towards the Turkish territories. But the Turkish navy had gone to its Greek base as usual. Many experienced officers and young men of the Turkish fleet were on leave. The rest were divided into two factions. One faction was led by Commander Pyali Pasha and the other by Sokolo Mehmet.
These two commanders were more concerned with humiliating each other than fighting the enemy. Although Ali Pasha was the supreme commander of the Turkish fleet. But Piyali Pasha and Sokolo Mehmet had a great influence on the Turkish army. As a result, the Turkish Empire and its fleet were weakening due to the war between the two. While this tug of war was going on here, on the other hand, the ships of Holy League had reached near the same Greek base of the Turks. The situation was that the Turks had 270 naval warships while the Holy League had 220 ships.
But the Holy League had the advantage of having six warships that were more powerful than the Turks. They were equipped with large artillery shells and protective shields to protect them from enemy shelling. Soldiers of the Holy League were armed with modern guns at the time. And you and their armor were better and stronger than the Turks. On October 7, 1951, war broke out between the two fleets. The Turks made a big mistake in this war. That is, they came out of their safe harbor and attacked the Crusaders. The direction and speed of the wind was very important in the naval wars of that time.
Because the positions of the ships were changed accordingly. Now the first problem with the Turks was that the wind was against them. Second, the Crusaders placed six of their most powerful ships on the front line. These ships bombed the Turkish fleet so much that the ranks of the Turks broke, the ships scattered here and there. And the ships of the Crusaders now surrounded the scattered ships. Crusader commander Dan Juan collided with the ship of Ali Pasha, the commander of the Turkish fleet. The Crusaders jumped on the Turkish ship and started a one-on-one battle.
Now the Crusaders had more guns, which were also modern and their armor was much better than the Turks. As a result, the Turkish soldiers began to die one by one at the hands of the Crusaders. Although the Turks were competing with their traditional bravery, the competition was not only for muscle and willpower, but also for technology, in which, of course, the Crusaders were now ahead. So a crusader shot and killed the Turkish commander Ali Pasha. Ali Pasha was then beheaded and tied to the pillar of the ship.
After the death of their commander there was a stampede among the Turks and their ships began to fall prey to the enemy one by one and the soldiers began to surrender. Within a few hours, 262 Turkish ships were either destroyed or captured by the Crusaders. Thirty thousand Turkish soldiers were killed, while fifteen thousand Christian slaves working on Turkish ships were freed by the Crusaders. The Crusaders ‘losses were surprisingly small compared to the Turks’. In this battle only fifteen crusader ships were destroyed and seven and a half thousand crusaders perished.
This battle is remembered in history as the Battle of Lipanto. The Battle of Lipanto was the largest naval defeat in Turkish history. This defeat embellished the Ottoman Empire’s superpower status. Spain now emerged as the largest power in Europe, and other European countries began to consider themselves equal to the Ottomans. Lipanto’s victory was celebrated all over Europe. But Turkey was not so helpless. Within a year, the Turks rebuilt their navy, adding eight large ships that had never been seen before in the Mediterranean.
In Fifteen Seventy Five, the Turkish fleet invaded Tunisia and snatched it from Spain. In Tunisia, the Turks also encountered 7,000 Spanish troops in a fortress. These soldiers fought hard against one hundred thousand Turks. European writers say that these troops thwarted 22 Turkish attacks on the fort and killed 25,000 Turkish soldiers. Only 300 of Spain’s 7,000 survivors survived. Who were captured by the Turks. It was a great victory for the Turks after the embarrassing defeat of the Battle of Lipanto, but the problem was that it was the last victory.
After the conquest of Tunisia, the Ottomans never again achieved such a great victory. The rest of his time was spent defending the Great Empire or conquering small areas. Tunisia was conquered in 1574, and Salim II died in the same year, and his son Murad III became caliph. Murad proved to be even more luxurious than his father. There were about forty women in his harem. When he died in 1595, he had 130 sons and innumerable daughters. After Murad III, his son Muhammad III became the caliph.
He did not kill the remaining 129 of his brothers, but killed 19 who he thought could challenge his empire. Not only that, Muhammad III proved to be so cruel that he had more than twenty of his sisters killed, although the Turks used to kill their brothers, but no one had ever killed their sisters since he became Sultan. Muhammad III was the first to do so. Muhammad III was a very skeptical man, he doubted his son Mahmud that he could rebel against him, so he had his son killed in his time. During this period, the Ottoman army’s Turkish soldiers revolted and the looting market in Istanbul became hot.
These soldiers wanted the influence of the geniuses on the caliph to end because the Turkish soldiers considered the geniuses to be foreigners and considered their growing influence a threat to their power . The geniuses set fire to the barracks of the soldiers In which hundreds of soldiers were burnt alive. The rest of the soldiers fled in droves and went to different parts of the kingdom to plunder. The uprising in Istanbul was crushed, but one side effect was very dangerous. That is, the geniuses who successfully crushed the rebellion became more powerful than ever.
So powerful that the geniuses started big business inside the empire. They started trading, building big estates and properties. Given the influence of the genocide, ordinary Turkish citizens would also want to join the force. Earlier, however, only European Christian children were included in the force. The story of which we have seen in episode 3, but in the seventeenth century it happened that a large number of Turkish citizens also became part of this force. There were even large bribes and recommendations for positions in the force. The number of this force was usually thirty, thirty five thousand.
But as their business expanded they became another empire within the empire and their numbers grew. Thus the genus grew to 200,000. That is almost six times more than its traditional number. So these were the circumstances in which Muhammad III died. The story of his death is also very interesting. It is said that an elder had predicted that some trouble would befall Muhammad III within 55 days. Muhammad III was so impressed by this prediction that he became anxious and his health began to decline rapidly. And on the last day of the prophecy, on the 55th day, Muhammad III died.
Muhammad III died in 163. He was replaced by his son Ahmed Khalifa. Ahmed put an end to the cruel practice of killing brothers and announced that now the eldest son of every caliph would become caliph. Although this move by Ahmed I was morally and humanely correct, it caused a loss to the Ottoman Empire. That is, before that there was a war for the Khilafah among the Ottomans, so the most powerful and capable son of them would have taken control of his brothers and taken over the government.
Such a ruler also managed the empire well and due to his fear there were no revolts in the empire, or less but after that it started happening that after each caliph there was more and more The battle for influence began. Conspiracies began to take place and with these conspiracies the women of the royal palaces began to gain power. She used to do everything legitimate and illegitimate to make her sons caliphs and kept the market of local conspiracies hot. One of the faults of the Ottoman rulers was that they abolished the tradition of training their princes to govern.
Earlier Ottoman rulers used to train their princes in government affairs by making them governors of different regions. But soon after the death of Caliph Suleiman, this tradition died out. Now the princes lived inside the palaces. Their mothers, concubines and eunuchs trained them. As a result, they were unable to handle and understand the complex affairs of the empire. The seventeenth century, from 1600 to 1700, was a period of catastrophe for the Ottomans, during which the empire continued to decline rapidly.
One of the reasons for its decline was the palace conspiracies, the weak caliphs and the uprisings of the soldiers. But there were other things that were causing the destruction of the Ottoman Empire. One reason was that modern science and culture were being adopted throughout Europe because of the European Renaissance. But Turkey was far behind in this field. Backward, due to not understanding modern scientific requirements, Turkish industry was also reduced to zero compared to European products.
It was now happening that the European countries used to buy raw materials from the Ottoman Empire at cheap prices and by producing products from the same raw materials they started selling them back to the Empire at high prices. This was their market and this is where they used to buy raw materials. In this way they started making huge profits and the value of Turkish currency started falling. The middle class of the Ottoman Empire began to grind in the mill of inflation. The old-fashioned Turkish industry was closing down compared to Europe’s emerging industry.
When people became unemployed, their desire for government jobs began to grow. Bribes began to be paid to get government positions. Incompetent people would get huge government posts by paying huge bribes and then heat up the market of corruption to get the bribe money including interest. And so all the government departments of the empire became more and more corrupt one by one. Things were getting worse and worse when a new caliph came to the Ottoman Empire. The name of this caliph was Murad IV. In 1623, Murad IV ascended the throne at the age of only twelve.
When he first went to the treasury to inspect the royal treasury after becoming caliph, he saw that there were only 20,000 pies and a few corals and sugar pots in the cupboards and nothing more. The king prostrated himself and then said, “Insha’Allah, I will fill this treasury with the property of those who have returned it.” But Murad IV had not yet begun to act on his intentions when a revolt broke out against him. It so happened that during this period, rebel soldiers were looting in various places in the Ottoman Empire.
Prime Minister Hafiz Pasha advised Murad to invite the rebels to come to Istanbul and present their demands to the caliph so that their rebellion could end. Murad obeyed his prime minister and invited the rebels to come to Istanbul. He accepted the invitation but later regretted it. Because the rebel soldiers entered Istanbul not like an organized force but like a chaotic mob and started looting the whole city, which was their shiva. The blackmailing of the rebels forced the caliph to Agree Under pressure from the rebels, Murad IV fired 17 high-ranking officials,
including Prime Minister Hafiz Pasha and Shaykh-ul-Islam Yahya Affandi. The sacked people were killed by the rebels at the entrance of the palace in front of the caliph. The rebel soldiers had looted and had so much treasure. Seeing them, gangs of looters from other areas also started entering Istanbul. They surrounded the homes of rich people and collected large sums of money at gunpoint. The looting continued until the month of Ramadan arrived. But the situation in Istanbul was such that no one cared about the traditional sanctity of Ramadan.
Hooligans were drunk on the streets of the city, but no one dared to stop or interrupt them. All this looting and bullying meant that the citizens of IV and Istanbul were fed up. It was very important to deal with looters. So Murad gathered the powerful people of the city and took an oath from them that they would support him in all circumstances. He then formed an army of civilians returning from the hands of those looters. And this army suddenly fell on the looters and rebels one morning. Then there was a massacre in the city. In which the civilian army would kill hundreds of insurgents every day.
After that, Caliph Murad IV reformed the army and restored the power of the Ottoman Empire to a great extent. If he had lived and ruled for a long time, perhaps the history of the Ottoman Empire would have been different. But life did not give Murad IV much respite. In 1640, at the age of only 27, Murad IV died of liver disease. When he died, the Ottoman Empire was no longer the superpower it once was, but it was asserting itself as a great power. The self-confidence that Murad IV instilled in the Turks resulted in the Ottoman Turks
once again attempting to conquer the Austrian capital, Vienna, in the Sixteenth Eighth. Prime Minister Mustafa Pasha was leading the Turkish army to conquer Vienna. Turkish soldiers were confident, but they lacked modern weapons to win the war. They did not have the large and heavy cannons used by Sultan Muhammad the Conqueror during his conquest of Constantinople. The Turkish army laid siege to Vienna in July 1863. But their artillery bombardment did not cause significant damage to the city walls.
The Turks dug tunnels under the city walls and tried to blow up the walls with explosives, but this technique was not very successful. Vienna’s security forces, meanwhile, repeatedly retaliated against the Turks, pushing them back. The siege of Vienna lasted two months. But gradually the Turkish tunneling technique began to succeed and the walls of Vienna began to crumble. It seemed that the city would soon be conquered. But a tragedy befell the Turks. That is, Polish ruler John Sobesky arrived in Vienna with his army to help.
On September 12, the Polish army attacked the Turks and forced the Turks to retreat after a fierce battle. This was the second major defeat of the Turks in Vienna after 1529. The Turkish army retreated to the Serbian capital, Belgrade. Turkish soldiers were so upset by their defeat that they hanged Prime Minister Mustafa Pasha as soon as they arrived in Belgrade. Austria, meanwhile, launched an open war against the Turks after the successful defense of Vienna.
The war lasted for almost 16 consecutive years, from 1863 to 1699, in which Austria and its European allies defeated the Ottomans. When the peace treaty was finally signed in 1909, the Ottomans had to cede much of Croatia, Hungary and Romania to Austria. Many Mediterranean islands were also returned to Venice, Turkish troops withdrew from Poland, and Russia occupied the port of Ozovo, near Ukraine. The Ottoman Empire could not recover after this humiliating defeat. Its wars with Austria and Russia continued throughout the eighteenth century.
Austria did not seize much territory from the Ottoman Empire. But Russia has made great strides in Crimea. Today, the area is under Russian occupation, but in the 18th century, it belonged to Turkey. In 1792, under an agreement, the Ottoman Empire withdrew from Crimea and the region became part of Russia. Just six years after the incident, French General Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt. Napoleon defeated the Ottoman army in Egypt near Cairo in July 1798. This battle is known as the Battle of the Pyramids or the Pyramids of Egypt.
After the defeat in this war, Egypt fell out of the hands of the Turks. But after the conquest of Egypt, Napoleon did not stop. He crossed the Sinai Desert and invaded the Turkish province of Syria. His army reached Gaza, which was then part of Syria province. Napoleon then captured the coastal city of Jaffa. In Jaffa, 5,000 Turkish soldiers surrendered on the condition that they be considered prisoners of war. But as soon as Napoleon’s army entered Jaffa, he brutally killed all the prisoners.
Napoleon then laid siege to another coastal city of Acre, and his advance was halted. Britain, then an ally of the Ottomans against Napoleon, also reached out to the besieged Turks in Acre. With this help, the Turks became more courageous and defeated Napoleon. Napoleon himself said that after conquering Syria he wanted to move towards India via Iraq. But with the defeat of Acacia, his dreams were shattered. After this defeat, Napoleon withdrew from Syria with his army and returned to Egypt. As soon as he returned, he looked at Akka and said that the fate of the East was related to this humble fort.
Napoleon returned to Egypt, but he did not stay long, and soon returned to France, although he had left some troops to protect Egypt. As soon as Napoleon left Egypt, Turkish and British troops invaded Egypt. The remnants of the French army had no choice but to surrender, so they surrendered. The Ottoman Empire survived the catastrophe at the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte, but the hundred years that followed fell heavily on the Turks. In the nineteenth century, many European countries, one by one, slipped out of their possession.
Turkey had become so weak militarily and economically that it was called the sick man of Europe. Then came the time in the early twentieth century when the Ottoman Empire disintegrated and the Khilafah was abolished. But even in its last days, the Ottoman Empire had achieved some memorable victories on the battlefield. What were these achievements and against whom? Why did the Jews want to save the Ottoman Empire? Was the Turkish Revolution a Jewish Conspiracy? Why was the Turkish government taking donations from citizens?
What lies were told to push the Ottoman Empire into the First World War? It will show you all but in the next episode of History of the Ottoman Empire. You have seen this episode of Ottoman Empire, in which we have shown you a short story about the war between Ottoman Empire and Russia over Crimea. But did you know that Crimea is still torn between Russia and Europe? To watch the whole story, you must watch this video
Part 4 :: The Ottoman Empire Season 2 Episode 4 Urdu | Who were the Young Turks
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