at the onset of the sixteenth century in the ottoman realm bayazid ii was already locked in an intense naval war with the Venetians that would last until 1503 tackling the new century with a desire for further consolidation the Ottomans under the command of Admiral Kemal rice found triumph by the end of this turkish venetian war ultimately forcing the Venetians to once again come to a peace agreement with the Turks.
while this victory served well for the continued fortifying of Ottoman power and Europe over in Anatolia the environment was becoming increasingly unstable by the year of 1511 supporters of the Safavid dynasty began to rebel against the growing dominance of the Ottoman Empire though they were forced to back down after the defeat of their leader chicawa.
meanwhile bitter dissension over the succession of the throne developed between Bey’s its sons Selim and Ahmed as both candidates attempted to rally support from different territories and leaders the Sultan’s advisors and Janissary corpse began to show a preference towards Selim concurrent with phases increasing concern about the possibility of Ahmed seeking aid from Shah Ismail in Persia finally in 1512.
Sultan Bayezid ii made his decision by abdicating to salim who would later have his brother put to death to avoid any further conflict BAE’s had passed away only a month after his retirement swiftly upon ascension to the throne Sultan Selim the first eradicated any potential threats to his position by having his brothers and nephews executed allowing himself to focus solely on any external dangers one of these hazards came in the form of the Shah Ismail and his Kissel Bosch Turkmen adherents over in Anatolia briskly putting an end to a revolt brought by the Kazu Bosch Salim.
then turned to Ismail himself subsequently overpowering the Shahs forces at the Battle of child Iran in 1514 while the Safavid troops consisted of simple cavalry men Salim’s army which was upwards of 100,000 men was able to rely on muskets and cannons by the end of the clash the ottomans moved on to seize Tabriz which had been the Safavid capital then continued toward the menlik dynasty of Egypt emerging victorious from both the battle of marj defeat.
in 1516 and the battle of Radha Nia in 1517 against the Mamluk forces the Ottomans in doing so were able to bring Egypt Hodges and all of the Levant into their empire thus by Salim the first death in 1520 not only had the cultural and geographical nucleus of the Empire shifted but it is believed that his reign brought forth an expansion of roughly 70% following the passing of his father Salim’s only son Solomon.
the first became the next and later widely revered Sultan of the Ottoman Empire known in the West as the magnificent and by the Ottomans themselves as the lawgiver Suleyman birth the time of immense military legal and cultural change within the empire while the chief sharia law or sacred law was not something that could be changed by the Sultan Suleyman was able to do some notable restructuring of the Canon or system of criminal land tenure and Taxation legislation.
this new final revision became known as the Ottoman laws and would remain intact for the next three centuries to come Suleyman also made adjustments to laws that affected varying religions within the empire taking a similar approach of tolerance to the one of the late baeza ii including but not limited to the formal condemning of blood libels issued against the jewish population.
simultaneously as these legislative and cultural shifts transpired within the empire outside of the sovereign borders build-out continued almost immediately taking aim at the christian powers in both Europe and the Mediterranean Suleyman the first led his forces to a victory at Belgrad in 1521 followed by the long-awaited seizure of roads in 1522 four years later engaged with the hungarian troops the ottomans not only vanquished their opponent but also executed king louis ii of hungary himself.
when Suleyman came across the slain body of the hungarian monarch he remarked may Allah be merciful to him and punish those who misled his inexperience I came indeed in arms against him but it was not my wish that he should be thus cut off before he scarcely tasted the sweets of life and royalty this unexpected void in Hungary’s authority sparked a new conflict for the throne between the Habsburg Archduke of Austria and the Transylvania voivode amidst prevalent opposition to the prospect of Habsburg control.
the Ottoman Sultan chose to accept annachi as the new vassal king of Hungary as an added venture to undermine any subsequent Habsburg meddling Suleyman led another campaign in 1529 this time aimed at Vienna unfortunately for the Turks an outbreak of troubles plagued their offensive and forced the Sultan to call off the futile advances largely undeterred by 1532.
the ottomans tried yet again to assail vienna but made very minimal progress after being stopped by the defending forces at the siege of guns thus giving suliman’s belief that Vienna was not a prize to be won so easily a peace agreement was finally reached in Constantinople between Archduke Ferdinand the first of Austria and the Ottoman Sultan the following year the terms of the truce were decided upon by both sides.
however it did not take long for the integrity of the agreement to deteriorate when in OSH passed away in 1540 any remaining peace between the Ottomans and Austrians seemed to shatter altogether throughout a series of campaigns and annexations in 1541 through 1543 hungary was eventually split into three individual Hungary’s on one side sat the Habsburg Hungary which was adjacent to the ottoman vassal state of Transylvania and neighboring.
the indefinitely garrisoned Ottoman Hungary the succeeding 19 years marked a vigorous on-and-off war within the region forcing a long bout of peace negotiations in 1562 all the while as the discord between the Christian and Muslim sides played out in one continent the Ottomans were also facing hostility over in the Middle East back in 1534 Suleyman launched the first of the three repetitive campaigns against the persian opposition.
the Ottomans would continue to push back against the Shah and his forces participating in a prolonged chess game of territory exchange until the final incursion ended with a peace treaty in 1544 securing various important gains for the Ottoman side during this time the ottoman naval might begin to flourish under admiral Kerr Aldean taking on european allied forces near the coasts of greece with great success the range of the turks naval influence could be felt as far as the indian ocean.
where they came in direct competition with the portuguese ascendancy in addition solomon’s reign also expanded the scope of the Ottoman impact to North Africa and the Mughal Empire rounding out a long and prosperous period of development and consolidation though not without the occasional shortcoming Suleyman spent his final months at the siege of CFR which resulted in a taxing victory for the ottomans losing tens of thousands of men.
in the process as well as their Sultan with his brothers having died or been executed previously the lim ii became the new leader of the ottoman empire in 1566 the first of many who would fall into the same pattern Salim’s dominance and true Authority was often undercut by the sway of Mehmed ciccolo his Grand Vizier and the women of his harem most notably his wife thoroughly uninterested in a life saturated in politics.
the new Sultan chose to leave much of the governing duties in the hands of the Grand Vizier nonetheless Salim’s reign was marked by the exchange of war for peace in regions previously contested by his father the first treaty was signed in 1568 creating a new wave of non-aggression with Austria mirroring the last ceasefire between the Ottomans and soffits while a rebellion in Yemen crept up shortly after it was quickly subdued the only main conflicts faced during the period of Salim’s rule played out after the capture of venetian territory of Cyprus.
in 1570 the same year that a peace treaty with Russia under the rule of ivan the terrible was reached in Constantinople subsequently due to the aforementioned antagonism in Europe the Battle of Lepanto ensued in 1571 which gifted only temporary victory to Venice until the following year by 1570 for the Ottomans had secured both Cyprus and Tunisia before the passing of sultan selim ii leaving the empire.
in the hands of Murad the third in drastic contrast with his father Murad ruled over a period of both conflict and decline of coherence within the Empire seizing fed’s from the Portuguese in 1578 and then broadening his authority in the Persian region the Sultan eventually launched a new surge of combat with Austria that would last into the following century during this time a notable alliance was formed between the Ottoman vassals with the Austrians despite the clear breach of terms with the Turkish 70 the period of 1570.
until 1590 also marked a relaunch of hostilities with the Safavid dynasty meanwhile the state of affairs within the Ottoman borders fared no better the constant conflicts demanded higher taxes prompting inflation and a rapid dwindling of the overall permanence inside the Empire even causing a slump in the reliability of the Janissary troops as only the 2nd Sultan following Salim the second to never lead his troops into battle and to have his power.
undermined by the women of his harem murids most impressive accomplishment may have been securing a diplomatic relationship with Queen Elizabeth the first of England arguing that the Islamic and Protestant worlds had more in common than either did to Roman Catholicism the Sultan was able to form a trade agreement with the English monarch in 1581 granting priority to England’s merchants within Ottoman territory these foreign relations outlived the Sultan himself.
being passed from the hands of Murad the third to Mehmet the third as the final Sultan of the 16th century Mehmed the third took on the growing alliance between his European vassals and Austrian enemy initially facing a loss though quickly bouncing back to defeat the Habsburg and Transylvanian forces at the Battle of Koresh Tesh in 1596 the end of the 1500s brought only slightly improved luck.
as a peace agreement was reached between the Ottoman Empire and one of the vassal leaders beehive the brave who had found prior success in fighting off the Turkish troops Sultan Mehmed the third continued to hold the Ottoman throne into the 17th century and would reign for another three years to come.
Read More:: How many Japanese Served in the U.S Army in WW2?
Assalam o Aalaikum. My Name is Ayesha Khan and i am SEO Expert and Writer.