Welcome to Pakistanwap! If you look at the map of our earth then just above the North Pole surrounded by America, Russia, Canada, Norway, Greenland, Iceland, there is a vast region which is called Arctic Ocean this sea is covered with ice almost all year round and ships can’t pass through it but, why is this Ocean so important? and why has it become so important in recent decades?
What is the problem of the Arctic Ocean? | بحر منجمند شمالی مسئلہ کیا ہے ؟
which countries are claiming ownership over it? and what do international laws say about these claims? that’s all we’ll know in this video Location Arctic Ocean in the far north of the earth and its adjacent small seas and northern parts of Russia, USA, Canada, Norway, Finland, Sweden as well as Greenland and Iceland make “Arctic Region” the Arctic Ocean is located in the middle of this region at the North Pole and its total area is 14 million square kilometers Why Arctic Ocean is Important? until a few decades ago
, this part of the earth was covered with snow all year round but in recent years, due to increasing global warming, the ice in this region has begun to melt faster and is melting at an annual rate of 13% last four decades have seen significant decrease in ice here according to experts, if the ice from the Arctic Ocean continues to melt at the same rate then this area will be completely Ice Free by 2035 during the summer melting of ice is dangerous for the international environment but it has posed a new strategic issue now that the snow level is decreasing rapidly with each passing year so,
the coastal countries of the Arctic Ocean are seeing it as an opportunity and they are trying to prove their ownership of as much of it as possible every country wants to prove its ownership of this sea as much as possible and why countries are even willing to pay the price for the enmity of other countries in the region there are two main reasons for this firstly, according to experts, it contains 22% of the undiscovered mineral deposits in our oceans. under these circumstances, any coastal country would want to control as much of it as possible and become the owner of the mineral deposits in that part in addition,
since fishing is a huge industry so, the claimant country will have the right to fish within the claimed limits. secondly, when Northern Sea Route(NSR) and the North Western Passage(NWP) will also become conducive to shipping in the coming years so, the coastal countries would also like to have control over these shipping lanes and ports etc. should be established in their area let’s compare these new shipping routes with other shipping routes so that it is easy to understand why these new shipping lanes are so important?
through NSR maritime distance from Japan to Northwestern Europe will be reduced by 40% compared to the Suez Canal Route and of course, the cost of trade through this route will be very low similiarly, through NWP maritime distance from Japan to New York(USA) will be reduced by 17% compared to the Panama Canal Route in these circumstances, it would be economically beneficial for the claimant country in 2017 a Russian LNG tanker traveled from Europe to Asia via NSR without resorting to icebreaker
and Russian officials say the trip lasted only six and a half days Claims of Arctic Nations Let’s take a look at the claims of the Arctic countries to this Ocean and what does the law that defines maritime boundaries say about them? according to UNCLOS the sea from the coast of any country up to 200 nautical miles falls within the territorial boundaries of that country. within these limits, this country will have control and rights over phishing, shipping, drilling this range is called Exclusive Economic Zone according to the same law,
if a country succeeds in proving on technical grounds that it has more maritime boundaries then its limits can be extended some of the same provisions of this law also make it complicated coastal states have alaims for specific reasons over specific parts of the Arctic Ocean and are also becoming a point of contention. let’s take a look at these claims from USA, Russia, Canada, Denmark first, let’s look at Russia’s claims Russia covers about 53% of the coastline of the Arctic Ocean and Russia claims ownership of much of the
Arctic Ocean in addition to its EEZ Russia has also formally submitted a claim to the United Nations for its claim Russia claims that the geological features of a mountain range within the Arctic Ocean are very similar to mountain range found on land in the territory of Russia that is its extension therefore, the ownership of this mountain range should be given to Russia but what is interesting here is the part about which Russia claims Denmark also claims the same area because of Greenland, which falls within its territory
Canada also claims that this is an extension of its continental shelf thus the claims of the three countries overlap each other although this conflict is not so severe yet but it is said that the conflict will intensify in the coming days when the Arctic Ocean ice melts completely and there is the danger of a possible war between these Arctic nations there is also a conflict in the Arctic Ocean between Canada and Denmark Canada’s claim to Hans Island in the Nares Strait in the Arctic Ocean as its own but also Denmark claims as its own however, no green or mineral deposits have been discovered on Hans Island rather,
it is just a rock however, no green or mineral deposits have been discovered on Hans Island rather, it is just a raised rock but acquiring country will have the right to search, extract mineral deposits in its vicinity therefore, this conflict is also intensifying Canada also claim that NWP passes through its territorial waters and rest of the world should get regular permission from it to use this route but rest of the world, and especially USA, is of the opinion that this route is in international waters and foreign ships have the right to pass through without permission they do not accept Canada’s claim there is also an issue in the Beaufort Sea adjacent to the Arctic Ocean
and this is an issue between Canada and the USA this dispute is over claims between Canada and the USA in the Beafort Sea here boundry line drawn by both countries overlap each other’s according to experts, this region is rich in minerals that’s why Canada and the United States want to own it similarly, Russia has more control over the NSR and Russia has military bases on its shores USA has strong reservations about that these conflicts are not only between the Arctic States but also China has a special interest in this region as it is a Near Arctic State and wants to build a “Polar Silk Route” with Russia thus,
it is possible that in the years to come, China will emerge as a party to the conflict and let the problem get worse no agreement has yet been reached between the Arctic countries on this issue but an Arctic Council is there for Coordination, Cooperation and Interaction between these countries World War II and Arctic importance of this sea can also be gauged from the fact that during WW II when Germany invaded the Soviet Union it was not possible for the Allies at that time to help the Soviet Union by way of the Black Sea or the Baltic Sea also through the Persian Gulf this help was not possible because it was a long way so,
in these circumstances there was only one shortest and quickest way and that was through Arctic Ocean In these circumstances, Britain first provided assistance to the Soviet Union via the Arctic Ocean and following in the footsteps of Britain,
the United States helped the Soviet Union in the same way which proved to be very helpful to the Soviet Union in its resistance against Germany Friends, do you think that any solution to these disputes will be found in the coming days? or these conflicts could lead to a war Be sure to let us know your valuable feedback in the comments We read your comments. Thanks