in this article, we will talk about that why did the Dutch Empire Collapse? the territories that would later form the Dutch Republic began as a loose Federation is known as the seventeen provinces which Charles Holy Roman Emperor also named Charles the first of Spain inherited and brought under his direct rule in 1543 in 1566 a Protestant Dutch Revolt broke out against ruled by Roman Catholic Spain sparking the eighty years war during and after this conflict the Dutch will focus on creating colonies.
in Europe trade was more and more important since the exploration era started ports and coastal cities were vital for economy and for cash flow one of Europe’s most important commercial cities was a mr. Dam the city became a true center for trading shipping and commerce efficient access to capital enabled the Dutch in the 1580s to extend their trade routes beyond northern Europe to new markets.
in the Mediterranean the Levant at the end of the sixteenth century their ship started to trade with the new discovered lands Brazil Dutch gold coast of Africa and Asian islands were important commercial targets this brought the Dutch into direct competition with Portugal which had dominated these trade routes for several decades and had established colonial outposts.
on the coast of Brazil Africa and the Indian Ocean from this time the Dutch started to have small colonies plantations and trade posts around the world in North and South America in Africa and Asia the Spanish Dutch war was for the Dutch part of their struggle for independence during the eighty years war because there was a union called the Iberian Union between Portugal and Spain.
the enemies of Spain became the enemies of Portugal too the Dutch attacked their colonies especially the important trade network around Asian islands India Africa and South America by doing so the Dutch became a colonial nation in the summer of 1629.
the Dutch had a newfound interest in rich sugar plantations so they wanted to obtain the Brazilian state of Pernambuco the largest and richest sugar production area the Dutch sent a fleet of 65 ships they managed to get it and the Dutch Brazil was also known as New Holland and it was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1630 and 1650 for in 1640.
John the Duke of Braganza declared Portuguese independence from Spain Brazil was originally and had remained a Portuguese colony some major uprising of Portuguese planters in June 1645 the Portuguese planters around Pernambuco had never fully accepted Dutch rule due to their different culture language and some taxes and by doing so the Dutch rule was abolished Dutch provinces supported.
a larger expedition to reconquer Brazil but was defeated by Portugal in the 1st and 2nd Battle of Poitier’s the Dutch finally lost control of Recife on January 28th 16:54 leaving to the Portuguese their colony of Brazil and putting to an end this new Netherlands in the next years a Portuguese expedition had been sent from recaptured Brazil to conquer the taken colonies in Africa across the Atlantic Ocean the Dutch were expelled from Angola by 1648.
this was about their loss in South America more to the north the Dutch managed to create a colony at the start of the 17th century in today’s territory of the New York State the West India Company created a settlement established by the company of New Netherland at Albany on the Hudson River.
as the Portuguese the Dutch focused a lot on trade and they had been sending ships regularly to the Hudson River to trade fur to protect their trade from French or English a fortified town was founded in 1625 called New Amsterdam in 1651.
the Parliament of England passed 1st of the Navigation Acts in these acts they excluded Dutch shipping from the lucrative trade between England and its Caribbean colonies these acts started a rivalry and it led directly to more tension and then hostilities between the two countries the anglo-dutch wars were a disadvantage for the Dutch and their naval and trade power the second anglo-dutch war started in 1665.
the English forces moved to capture New Netherland the important Dutch settlement in North America the conflict lasted for two years and it ended with the Treaty of Breda of 1667 the act of navigation was modified more in the favor of the Dutch they would keep their valuable territories in Suriname in exchange.
New Netherland was ceded to England even if Dutch Republic would again take New Netherland in 1673 during the third anglo-dutch war it was returned to England of the following year ending their rule in North America leaving behind a large Dutch community in the same period on the other side of the world conflicts with Ming China existed mainly.
due to trade reasons Chinese general Zhang Jiang Cong attacked and invaded Formosa the Dutch defense led by Governor Frederick Koya resisted against the Chinese for nine months but in the final four Zealandia surrendered ending the Dutch rule.
in this territory during the American Revolutionary War Britain declared war on the Netherlands the fourth anglo-dutch war in which Britain seized the Dutch colony of Salem under the Peace of Paris 1783 sailin was returned to the Netherlands in the middle of the 17th century the Dutch managed to colonize territories in South Africa in 1795.
the French Revolutionary Army invaded the Dutch Republic and turned the nation into a satellite of France named the Batavian Republic Britain which was at war with France was now at war with the new Batavian Republic and soon moved to occupy the Dutch colonies in Asia South Africa and the Caribbean under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens signed by Britain and France in 1802.
the Cape Colony and the islands of Dutch West Indies that the British had seized were returned to the Republic Ceylan was not returned to the Dutch and was made a British Crown Colony after one year France and Britain will be at war again.
the British retook the Cape Colony and also invaded and captured the island of Java in 1811 in 1806 Napoleon dissolved the Batavian Republic and established a new monarchy with his brother Louis Bonaparte on the throne as king of the Netherlands Louis was removed from power by Napoleon in 1810 and the country was ruled directly from France until its liberation in 1813.
the Napoleonic Wars created big losses for the Dutch being under the French rule in one way or another some of their colonies were conquered the anglo-dutch Treaty of 1814 will ratify that Britain will get cape colony Quiana and Sri Lanka anglo-dutch rivalry in Southeast Asia continued over the port of Singapore which had been ceded to the British East India Company in 1819 by the Sultan of Johar the Dutch claimed that a treaty signed with the Sultan’s predecessor.
the year earlier had granted them control of the region again tensions existed and another anglo-dutch Treaty was made in 1824 in this one the Netherlands ceded Malacca and their bases in India to the Brit and recognize the British claim to Singapore in return the British agreed not to sign the treaties with rulers in the islands south of the Straits of Singapore after this treaty.
in this part of the world the islands were divided into two spheres of influence a British one and a Dutch one Netherland will expand their possessions in East Indies especially deepen their mainland not only on the coast having control of what is now Indonesia in 1942 the Empire of Japan invaded the Netherlands East Indies.
a territory rich in resources vital for Japan at the time the Japanese occupation of Indonesia during World War two encouraged the independence movement here two days after the Japanese surrender in August 1945 some nationalists declared Indonesian independence a four and a half year struggle followed.
as the Dutch tried to re-establish their colony Dutch forces reoccupied most of the colonial territory as the decolonization movement started to rise almost everywhere in two world international opinion favored independence in December 1949.
the Netherlands formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty the Dutch as well as other European powers focused on new discovered lands and they managed to establish important colonies and to increase their trade and cash flow as the Portuguese.
even if they were a power they didn’t have the necessary manpower or resources to establish very large colonies and instead they preferred small ones and trade posts in key positions even if this was a good strategy in time due to rivalries with stronger and bigger nations some of their possessions were lost and in the 20th century other colonies got their independence due to the decolonization period being encouraged by other powers.
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