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Zaheer-ud-Din Babar: Successive failures encouraged the first Mughal emperor

Zaheer-ud-Din Babar: Successive failures encouraged the first Mughal emperor
Zaheer-ud-Din Babar: Successive failures encouraged the first Mughal emperor

Zaheer-ud-Din Babar: Successive failures encouraged the first Mughal emperor

While the founder of the Mughal Empire, Zaheer-ud-Din Muhammad Babar (1530-1483), is seen and described as a great conqueror, in many circles he is also considered a great artist and a great writer.

Stephen Dale, a historian of Babar, writes that it is difficult to determine whether Zaheer-ud-Din Babar is more important as a king or as a poet and writer.

In today’s India, Babar is also considered as an invader, looter, usurper, Hindu enemy, tyrant and oppressive king among the people of a particular ideology of the majority Hindu class. The issue is not limited to this, but the ruling party of India, not only Babar, seems to be against everything attributed to the Mughal Empire.

About five hundred years ago today, Zaheer-ud-Din Babar founded an empire that is Benazir in itself. He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 and established an empire in India which, in its heyday, occupied more than a quarter of the world’s wealth and covered almost the entire subcontinent. It covered Afghanistan.
But Babar’s life is a constant struggle. Babar’s greatest introduction to today’s world is his own biography. His work is today known as ‘Babar Nama’ or ‘Tazak Babri’.

Nishat Manzar, head of the history department at Delhi’s Central University, Jamia Millia Islamia, says Babar’s life can be divided into two parts: one on the Sehwan (Sir River) and the Jeehan (Amu Darya) in the Marwanhar area. Central Asia covers the struggle for supremacy and the second period is very short but of great importance that in just four years he founded a great empire of India which lasted for almost three hundred years.


Moin Ahmad Nizami, a fellow of South Asian Islam at the Oxford Center for Islamic Studies, that Zaheer-ud-Din Babar , who is of Timurid and Genghis descent, had inherited a small state called Fergana from his father, Omar Sheikh Mirza. Neighboring states were ruled by their relatives.

“He even lost his homeland and spent most of his life hiking and adventuring,” he says. His efforts to regain his homeland have failed, even as circumstances have forced him to turn to India.

Babar wrote in his autobiography, referring to his successive failures at the time: ‘The more days I stayed in Tashkent, the more I suffered. The country was not under occupation and there was no hope of meeting it. The servants had often left, and what they had left could not go back with me because of poverty.

He further writes, “Eventually I got tired of this wandering and homelessness and got bored with life. I said in my heart that it is better to go wherever I can than to live in such hardships. Hide so that no one can see. Better a poor horse than no horse at all. Better a poor horse than no horse at all. Better a poor horse than no horse at all. Better a poor horse than no horse at all. Better a poor horse than no horse at all.

Better a poor horse than no horse at all. Better a poor horse than no horse at all. I have been interested in traveling around the country since my childhood, but I could not go because of the kingdom and relations.

Moin Ahmad Nizami said that he has written similar things in other places as well. In one place it is written, “Is there anything left to see, what kind of irony and oppression is left to see?”

In a poem, he expresses his condition, which means, “I no longer have friends, nor do I have country and wealth. I do not have a single moment.” It was my decision to come here, but now I can’t go back. “

In his autobiographical novel, Zaheer-ud-Din Babar, Dr. Premikul Kadyrov depicts the same exciting and turbulent situation of Babar. At one point he writes that “Babar paused for breath but he continued his speech … Everything is mortal. Even great empires fall apart as soon as they rise from the world of their founders. But the word of the poet lives on for centuries.

He once had a poem engraved on a rock in a place after the mention of King Jamshid, which is now in a museum in Tajikistan. He interprets their situation.

I took the world by force

But I did not go by myself

The translation is that the world can be conquered by force and courage, but it cannot bury itself.

This shows that he was not one of the losers. Babar had the power of a mountain spring that would rip through the rocky ground and rise from the heights with the force that would irrigate the whole land. Thus, in one place, Kadyrov described the situation in this way.

At that time, Zaheer-ud-Din Babar was enjoying the view of the powerful spring … Babar thought the water in the spring must have come from the Perikh Glacier. This meant that the water had to go much deeper than the depths of the valleys between the two mountains to get down from the periwinkle and then ascend to the top of Mount Lao. Where did the spring of water get so much strength for it? Babar liked to compare his own life with such a fountain. He himself had come under the falling rock.
Babar towards India

Different perspectives can be given as to how Babar’s attention was drawn to India, but Professor Nishat Manzar says that his focus on India was very reasonable because there was only one thing to levy taxes in Kabul and the government Wealth was desperately needed for the administration, so Babar had no choice but to turn to India.

So we see that before crossing the Indus River, they had invaded the western part of India many times before and returned to Kabul after taking the booty from there.

He says the way Zaheer-ud-Din Babar begins his autobiography, one cannot expect such courage and determination from a 12-year-old boy. But in Babar’s blood there was bravery with rule.

Nishat Manzar says that he was drawn here by both fate and need, otherwise all his initial efforts would have been based on consolidating his ancestral empire in North Asia and establishing a great empire.

He also said that it was a separate matter of debate whether Rana Sanga or Daulat Khan Lodhi had invited him to invade the Delhi Empire or not but it was certain that today’s democratic values ​​would test the Sultanate era. Can not do it. In those days, wherever he went and was victorious, both the people and the properties would accept him and not consider him an attacker.
But about Babar’s dream of India, LF Rushbrook writes in his book ‘Zaheer-ud-Din Muhammad Babar’ that Babar, exhausted, decided to live in a village called Dekh Kat.

He sincerely adapted to the environment. He gave up all his claims and stayed at the house of the village chief (sardar) just like a simple guest. There was a precedent that fate had decided would have a profound effect on Babar’s future life. Muqaddam will be 70 or 80 years old but his mother was 111 years old and she was alive. Some of the old woman’s relatives had gone to India with Timur Beg’s army. It was in her mind and she used to tell her story.

The stories they narrated about the deeds of Zaheer-ud-Din Babar ‘s elders stirred the imagination of the young prince and there can be no doubt that from that time onwards the dream of renewing Timur’s conquests in India It remained in the background of his mind.

Rahma Javed Rashid, an assistant professor in the history department at Jamia Millia University, says it is well known that Zaheer-ud-Din Babar was the fifth descendant of the Timurid dynasty on the father’s side and the 14th descendant of the great conqueror Genghis Khan on the mother’s side. Were from Thus the blood of the two great conquerors of Asia was contained in Babar which gave them superiority over other regional rulers.

Education and Training

Zaheer-ud-Din Babar was born and educated in Andajan, the capital of Fergana. Professor Nishat Manzar says that although both his ancestors Amjad Genghis Khan and Timur Ling were illiterate, he was well aware that without education, founding is difficult. So they gave their children a higher education. Babar’s education also started at the age of four years and four days according to Islamic tradition.

He added that the people who educated Genghis Khan’s descendants belonged to the Uyghur people, who are today in the troubled province of Xinjiang in China, but in the Middle Ages they were considered the most literate.

Similarly, Timur Baig hired Chughtai Turks to educate his children, who were considered to be the most literate of their time and who gave their language a literary status despite the dominance of Arabic and Persian.
When I asked him how he got this status in the field of knowledge and skills in becoming a king at such a young age and in so many campaigns and exiles.

Drinking

A lion of Babar can be seen in many places:

Happy nine days and nine springs and wine and sweetness

Babar in luxury that the world is not again

“It’s nine days, there’s a new spring, there’s wine, there’s a beautiful lover, Babar, just keep on enjoying that the world is not here again.”

Professor Nishat Manzar says that Babar lived a life of asceticism for 21 years but then he started having drunken parties with Arbab Nishat. Therefore, drunken women are also mentioned in his parties and Babar has not tried to hide his mention. He also writes about his father that he was addicted to alcohol and started taking potions while Humayun is known to be addicted to opium.

Nishat Manzar says that when Babar repented from alcohol, it was his strategy. In front of him was Rana Sanga, India’s greatest fighter who had never lost a battle before. Babar’s army was halved after the Battle of Panipat, and during the battle a stage came when Babar was facing defeat, so he first made a fiery speech and then repented.

Some scholars believe that because of this true repentance of Babar, Allah gave the Mughals a kingdom of three hundred years in India. But Professor Rizwan Qaiser, a history professor at Jamia Millia Islamia, says it may be a religious explanation for Babar’s actions, but not its historical significance, as it cannot be proven in any way. He must have used religious fervor to win the war.

Earlier, when Babar had sought the support of the King of Iran for the restoration of his native Fergana and called himself a Shiite, a leading scholar at the time had spoken ill of Babar and opposed him. Had come down

Professor Nishat also said that Babar in many places used the word ‘infidel’ for his enemy Muslim rulers and cursed them.

However, Babar described his repentance as follows: ‘I had ordered wine from Kabul and Baba’s friend Suji brought three rows of camels full of pots of wine. Meanwhile, Muhammad Sharif Najomi spread the word that Mars is in the west at the moment and this is ominous so it will be defeated. This shook the heart of my army … “

It was Tuesday, the 23rd of Jamadi al-Thani. With that in mind, I repented of my alcoholism. He broke all the gold and silver vessels of wine. And all the wine that was in the camp at that time was poured out. He distributed the gold and silver from the pots to the poor. My colleague Ass also helped me in this work.

On hearing the news of my repentance, three of my fellow princes repented that night. Since Baba Dost had brought many pots of wine from Kabul on several rows of camels and this wine was too much, instead of blowing it, he added salt to it to take the form of vinegar. Where I repented from wine and poured it into wine cellars, I installed a stone as a memorial of repentance and built a building … ‘

I also intended that if Allah Almighty would grant victory to Rana Sanga, I would forgive all taxes in my kingdom. I considered it necessary to announce this apology and ordered the editors to issue edicts on this article and make it famous far and wide.

“The change was due to the large number of enemies in the army, so I gathered the whole army in one place and said: ‘Everyone who has come into this world has to die. Life is in God’s hands, so don’t be afraid of death. Swear to me in the name of Allah that you will not turn away when you see death in front of you and you will continue fighting as long as you live. My speech had a great impact. This filled the army with enthusiasm, the fighting stopped and in the end I won. This victory took place in 1527.
Babar and his relatives

After the battle of Panipat, Babar generously distributes the wealth among his relatives and nobles. Babar has also mentioned this and his daughter Gulbadin Bano has also mentioned it in detail in her book ‘Humayun Nama’.

Professor Nishat Manzar and Dr Rahma Javed told the BBC that the highlight of Babar’s personality was his relationship with women. He said that women were included in his advice. His mother was with him and his grandmother also used to reach Andjan from Samarkand. He has specially mentioned aunts, uncles, sisters and aunts in his biography.

The number of women mentioned in Babar’s biography is unheard of in the entire later Mughal Empire. In this regard, Prof. Nishat Manzar said that before the reign of King Akbar, the customs of Turks and Beg were prevalent among the Mughals due to which the presence of women is visible everywhere.

So Babar mentions his two aunts who wore turbans like men. She rode on horseback and carried a sword. Swordsmanship and bravery were common among them, but they usually attended court and meetings. Their scope was not limited to marriage.

Professor Nishat says that the Indianization of Mughals started in the time of Akbar and after that women disappeared from the scene in the background. And there are grandmothers and their real mothers from whose womb they were born.

Legitimacy in Babar’s personality

Babar is accused of attacking and breaking temples in India, forcibly converting Hindus to Islam, while his grandson Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar is called the “Peacemaker” and religious tolerance is considered part of it.

But Saifuddin Ahmed, an assistant professor in the history department at Delhi University, says: Both these personalities are considered to be the pulse of empire building in the long history of India while King Babar is notorious for demolishing temples and building mosques in Ayodhya.

He adds that Babar’s will, which he created for his son and successor Humayun, is an excellent example of the political ideology that evolved in Khorasan. Babar has pointed out a number of issues that today’s political parties completely ignore, or fail to address. Babar did not have the opportunity to stay in India for long, but his natural intelligence soon made him a character here, and the will he wrote to Humayun shows his justice and prudence.

Babar wrote: ‘Son of man, first of all, do not do politics in the name of religion, that you do not place religious prejudice in your heart and do justice to all people, taking into account the religious sentiments and religious customs of the people. Saifuddin Ahmed said that this ideology of Babar is called secularism today.

He further said that Babar had written while urging not to create tension in the ideology of national relations: Be submissive. ‘

According to Saifuddin Ahmed, Babar said the third thing: “You should not demolish the place of worship of any nation and always do full justice so that the relations between the king and his subjects are friendly and there is peace and order in the country.”

Fourthly, he said that the propagation of Islam would be better than the sword of oppression rather than the sword of pleasure and benevolence. Babar also advised to ignore the Shia-Sunni differences and the people Otherwise, it will damage the unity of the country and the rulers will soon lose their power.

According to Saifuddin, Babar also said, “Think of the different characteristics of your subjects as different seasons of the year so that the government and the people can avoid various diseases and weaknesses.”

Professor Nishat Manzar said that the fact is that Babar’s heart was as wide as India’s and he believed in constant struggle. His interest in nature and the construction of gardens in India has ushered in a new era, the culmination of which we see in the gardens of Jahangir and the construction of Shah Jahan.

Religion was very much involved in Babar’s life and he does not forget to mention in his description of many people that he was a worshiper or that he started his journey at a certain time and offered a prayer there.
Although he sought information from astrologers and astrologers, he was far from superstitious. Therefore, in his statement in Kabul, Babar wrote, “One of the elders here was Mullah Abdul Rehman. He was a scholar and read all the time. He died in the same condition …

People say that there is a shrine in Ghazni and if you recite Durood on it, it starts moving. When I went to see him, I saw that the grave was shaking. When he found out, he found out that the neighbors there were cunning. A net is made over the grave. When they walk on the net, it shakes. And with its shaking, the grave also appears to be shaking. I untied the net and built a dome. ‘

There are other similar incidents in Baburnama but Babar’s death is a very spiritual event in itself.

Gulbadin Bano describes in detail how Humayun’s condition was deteriorating, so Babar circled around his bed and made a vow.

She writes that this used to happen in our country but Baba Janam had asked for Humayun’s life in exchange for his own life so it happened that Humayun got better and Babar Ali and in the same condition on 26th December 1530 a great conqueror bid farewell to the world. He said and left behind many questions.

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